Effectiveness of land management

Component
Summary
Grade
Ineffective Partially effective Effective Very effective
Confidence
In Grade In Trend
Comparability
To previous years

Understanding: The general nature and pattern of climate-induced pressures has become clearer, although revised funding priorities suggest that adaptation research will become a greater focus than improving basic understanding

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Somewhat adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Somewhat adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Understanding: The general nature and pattern of climate-induced pressures are becoming clearer, although many uncertainties remain at finer scales

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Modelling to inform planning decisions increasingly advanced in some areas, and plans to support climate change adaptation, such as in supplementing the protected area estate, becoming increasingly sophisticated

Year(s): 
2016
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Somewhat adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Somewhat adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Planning: Most planning remains at an early stage, in part reflecting the rapidly evolving understanding of how climate-induced pressures are likely to impact on the land environment

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: There have been substantial initial investments in national and state-scale research on likely impacts and possible management responses

Year(s): 
2016
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Somewhat adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Somewhat adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Inputs: There have been substantial initial investments in national and state-scale research on likely impacts and possible management responses

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: National and state-level bodies and industry sectors continue to engage with the issues of climate change. However, there remains a lack of consensus at the highest political levels about strategies to mitigate climate change, or adapt to its consequences

Year(s): 
2016
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Somewhat adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Somewhat adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Processes: National and state-level bodies and industry sectors are now engaging with the issues of climate change. However, there is not yet consensus at the highest political levels about strategies to address and mitigate climate change

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Outputs continue to focus primarily on the knowledge and information base necessary to inform management responses, but there are a growing number of practical actions being implemented

Year(s): 
2016
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Somewhat adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Somewhat adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Outputs focus on the knowledge and information base necessary to inform management responses to the likely impacts of climate change

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: There is a generally high level of understanding of the impacts of bushfires on environmental values, and an increasing recognition that some approaches to risk mitigation for life and property have negative environmental impacts, which is leading to novel management solutions

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Topics

Understanding: There is a generally high level of understanding of the impacts of bushfires on environmental values, strategies for mitigating adverse impacts, and the responsibilities of land managers

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Planning: There is generally a high level of planning for bushfire management both for risk mitigation and enhancing environmental consequences of bushfires

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Topics

Planning: There is generally a high level of planning for bushfire risk mitigation

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Inputs: While inputs for bushfire risk mitigation and management have increased, particularly for public land in southern Australia, there remain insufficient funds to manage the impacts of bushfire on environmental values

Year(s): 
2016
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Inputs: The overall level of inputs for bushfire risk mitigation and management has increased, particularly for public land in southern Australia. In general, there are insufficient inputs to minimise the impacts of bushfire on environmental values of the extensively managed rangelands and tropical savannas of all tenures

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Processes: There are well-developed processes for evaluating the impacts of bushfire management strategies on environmental values, and for adaptive management

Year(s): 
2016
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Topics

Processes: There are well-developed processes for evaluating the impacts of bushfire management strategies on environmental values, and for adaptive management

Year(s): 
2011
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Outputs and outcomes: In general, the greater recognition and understanding of both the positive and negative impacts of bushfires means that management approaches are increasingly considering the full range of consequences before initiating action

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Outputs and outcomes: In general, the greater recognition and understanding of bushfire impacts on environmental values means that these are less impacted by planned fire. The impacts of wildfire are more difficult to manage, and more variable

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Understanding: The impacts of land clearing on environmental values are well understood

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Understanding: The impacts of land clearing on environmental values are well understood

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: All states and territories, other than the Northern Territory, where legislation is now being enacted, have legislation to control land clearing

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Planning: All states and territories, other than the Northern Territory, where legislation is now being enacted, have legislation to control land clearing

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: The availability and quality of monitoring and reporting systems and tools are key inputs; these continue to be improved nationally and within jurisdictions

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Inputs: Timely monitoring and reporting systems and tools are key inputs; the availability and quality of these have improved nationally and within jurisdictions

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Processes vary between jurisdictions; reversals in legislative control of land clearing in some jurisdictions

Year(s): 
2016
2
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Processes: Processes vary between jurisdictions, but all are more effective than they have been in the past

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Land clearing continues to threaten environmental values in some areas, both as a consequence of ongoing clearing but also because of cumulative impacts of other threatening process on fragmented habitat

Year(s): 
2016
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not comparable

Outputs and outcomes: The national rate of land clearing is now balanced by that of regrowth, but land clearing continues to threaten environmental values in some regions

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: There are well-established, coordinated national arrangements for identification of, minimisation of and response to biosecurity risks, and national and state strategies for managing priority pest animal and invasive plant species

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Understanding: There are well-established, coordinated national arrangements for identification of, minimisation of and response to biosecurity risks, and national and state strategies for managing priority pest animal and invasive plant species

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: There are high levels of national, state and regional-level planning for priority invasive species

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Planning: There are high levels of national, state and regional-level planning for priority invasive species

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Significant financial inputs from the Australian Government, state and territory governments and local governments are highly targeted, but the scale of the threats, diversity of opinions about prioritisation, and range of impacts an invasive species may have depending on the environmental context means, inevitably, that there are always important impacts which are not adequately resourced. Private landholders and communities also make major contributions in managing invasive species at local levels

Year(s): 
2016
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Inputs: Australian Government inputs are focused on national priority species or on listed threatening processes. In addition, state and territory governments and regional natural resource management organisations commit resources to local priorities; these are complemented by considerable voluntary community and landowner commitments of time and resources. However, in general, financial resources available to manage established invasive species are less than those that would be necessary to substantially impact on pest populations. In some cases, this is because control measures that are effective and feasible have not been identified

Year(s): 
2011
2
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Management processes vary widely, depending on the nature of the invasive species or threat. Processes are public, and stakeholders are appropriately engaged. An ongoing challenge is that resources are often tied to formal risk categorisation, which means that eradication opportunities may be missed as new incursions become too well established before effective management can begin

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Processes: Management processes vary widely, depending on the nature of the invasive species or threat. There is generally an emphasis on integrated management responses, drawing on a range of control measures. Processes are public, and stakeholders are appropriately engaged

Year(s): 
2011
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: The success of strategies for individual invasive species varies, both spatially and temporally, but overall, invasive species are expected to become more, rather than less, threatening for land environmental values

Year(s): 
2016
2
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Containment, rather than elimination, is the feasible goal of most invasive species management strategies. The success of strategies for individual invasive species varies, both spatially and temporally, but overall, invasive species are expected to become more, rather than less, threatening for land environmental values

Year(s): 
2011
2
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: The objectives of the national reserve system, and for management of conservation reserves, are explicitly specified in national and state-level policy statements and in management plans

Year(s): 
2016
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Understanding: The objectives of the national reserve system, and for management of conservation reserves, are explicitly specified in national and state-level policy statements and in management plans for reserves

Year(s): 
2011
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Management plans are the basis of planning for individual reserves. Incorporation of data to underpin the decision making processes is improving, and scenario planning approaches are engaging with community expectations

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Planning: Management plans are the basis of planning for individual reserves. Planning to adapt to the impacts of climate change, and to improve the resilience and effectiveness of the national reserve system, is under way

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Despite considerable investment, resource inputs across the conservation system as a whole are insufficient for the realisation of management objectives, especially as the likely effects of climate change become better understood

Year(s): 
2016
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Inputs: Resource inputs across the conservation system as a whole are insufficient for the realisation of management objectives

Year(s): 
2011
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Processes governing management of conservation reserves are generally clear and transparent, draw on stakeholder input, and report to stakeholders. However, legislative challenge to reserve integrity suggests that these processes are not necessarily stable

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Processes: Processes governing management of conservation reserves are generally clear and transparent, draw on stakeholder input, and report to stakeholders

Year(s): 
2011
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Short term management outcomes are usually achieved, but longer term aspirational outcomes will require ongoing attention to management of threatening processes

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Management outcomes are usually realised in the short term, but the longer term outcomes sought of conservation reserves depend also on the impacts of processes, such as those described in this table, that threaten maintenance of their values

Year(s): 
2011
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: Indigenous land managers consider the sector to be highly politicised, confusing and bureaucratic in nature.

Year(s): 
2016
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Understanding: Indigenous Australians have formal management rights to increasing areas of their country under a number of tenure regimes

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Greater Indigenous input at early stages of planning, and wider use of Indigenous reference groups for major projects and programmes, is ensuring that in many regions Indigenous representation is more meaningful and more powerful. There is still great room for improvement

Year(s): 
2016
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Planning: Planning processes are best developed for Indigenous Protected Areas, and for areas for which Indigenous ranger groups are active

Year(s): 
2011
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Continued investments from governments and transition to fee for service model enables many successful Indigenous management units to function successfully; short term fluctuations in fund availability, and competing demands for skilled workers, means that staff turnover can be an issue in some regions

Year(s): 
2016
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Inputs: Financial inputs derive predominantly from government programs, and are threatened by planned changes to workforce programs. Significant resources have been committed from the private and philanthropic sectors for some projects

Year(s): 
2011
2
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Ongoing challenges with short-term project funding, mandatory reporting on issues which have limited or no local cultural relevance

Year(s): 
2016
2
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Processes: Processes respect Indigenous culture and interests as well as the interests of funding entities

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Some Indigenous groups are having significant impact in improving land management within their regions. In other regions, competing interests, inconsistent funding or lack of capacity are restricting impact.

Year(s): 
2016
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Outputs and outcomes: The outputs of Indigenous land management include cultural, social and economic elements, as well as land management itself. The outcomes of greater Indigenous land management include a more effective conservation reserve system, and more sustainable land management

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: Native forest management is regulated in all states and territories by legislation. Plantations are also regulated in most states. Many plantation owners have obtained independent certification

Year(s): 
2016
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Understanding: Management of both public and private native forests harvested for wood production is regulated by codes of forest practice in all states and territories. Plantation forestry practices are regulated similarly in some states, but less prescriptively in others. Many large-scale forest owners in both public and private sectors have sought and received third-party forest certification

Year(s): 
2011
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Management plans are required in most jurisdictions

Year(s): 
2016
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Planning: Intensive planning of forest operations is required for native forests in all states and territories, and for plantation forests in most jurisdictions

Year(s): 
2011
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Commercial investment in production forestry has declined, putting the industry at risk

Year(s): 
2016
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Inputs: High levels of inputs, funded on a commercial basis, are associated with production forestry

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: High levels of stakeholder engagement in management of public forests

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Processes: Processes for public native forest management have high levels of stakeholder engagement; those for private native forests and plantation forest are generally more limited

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Outputs are typically assessed against commercial objectives, and these have been declining. Outcomes are assessed against certification and legislative requirements

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Outputs are typically assessed against planning and commercial objectives. Outcomes are intended to ensure that forestry operations comply with the principles of sustainable forest management and forest certification systems

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: Good understanding of grazing practices, and land management practices associated with best practice management

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Understanding: There is a good understanding of climate variability, trade-related matters and greenhouse gas abatement, and these directly affect grazing practices. Animal welfare issues are prominent

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Property planning is routinely of a good standard. Positive engagement with best practice proposals

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Planning: The standard of property planning continues to improve, especially in larger integrated grazing operations

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Funding declines mean that long term monitoring has largely ceased

Year(s): 
2016
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Inputs: Monitoring of grazing systems has improved. Insufficient resources are available to protect ecosystem services, due to the absence of a funding mechanism for these public goods. Survey and monitoring programs are poorly resourced

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Improved through industry and agency support, but reduced funding and challenging financial environment mean best practice not fully implemented

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Processes: These have advanced significantly through Landcare and related activities

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Legacy of degradation through overgrazing and drought years mean that while progress steady, some outcomes still sub-optimal

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Good progress, but chronic forms of land degradation are widespread in the grazing lands of Australia

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: Improving understanding of how to improve management for least environmental impact

Year(s): 
2016
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Understanding: There is a good understanding of climate variability, trade-related matters and the potential impacts of climate change

Year(s): 
2011
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Planning: Improved forecasting and cropping models support farm planning

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Planning: Sophistication continues to increase, and leading farmers use sophisticated modelling and forecasting tools to plan operations

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Inputs: Reduced investments mean environmental efficiencies not routinely achieved

Year(s): 
2016
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Inputs: Weakening human capital and patchy information systems constrain economic efficiency and environmental management

Year(s): 
2011
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Processes: Reduced investments in research and changes to extension services

Year(s): 
2016
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Processes: Weakening investment in research and development and ongoing changes to extension services are significant matters

Year(s): 
2011
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Outputs and outcomes: Ongoing contribution to exported sediment loads and salinity reducing through management, but still significant

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Outputs and outcomes: By international standards, dryland cropping in most regions is very efficient, although environmental performance is often difficult to assess

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Understanding: Good understanding of how to manage for best practice, and models suggest this is being implemented

Year(s): 
2016
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Understanding: The industry is in the middle of a major water reform process, which is leading to improved efficiency but inevitable disruptions. These changes are strongly contested, although a much clearer view is emerging about future development pathways (e.g. northern Australia, Murray-Darling Basin)

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Planning: Good understanding of how to manage for best practice, and models suggest this is being implemented

Year(s): 
2016
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Planning: This has improved significantly at the farm and district scale, but regional and national planning has not been able to resolve competing contemporary and future needs for agriculture and the environment

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Inputs: Investments in research and development from multiple sources are increasing adaptive management capacity

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Inputs: Weakening human capital and patchy information systems constrain current performance and capacity to adapt

Year(s): 
2011
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Processes: Some indications that full implementation of best practice not being achieved due to changes in extension services

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Processes: Generally good at the local and district scale, but processes for dealing with reduced water allocations are only partly effective

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Outputs and outcomes: Still a major source of sediment and chemicals in run-off but significant improvements apparent

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Topics

Outputs and outcomes: Irrigated agriculture has improved its environmental performance (e.g. salinity management, reduced pesticide use, improved nutrient management), and the economic return per unit of water has increased

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Topics

Understanding: Improved understanding of impacts, and work to ensure all stakeholders aware of impacts and their mitigation

Year(s): 
2016
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Understanding: Unprecedented industry expansion is a profound development for Australia. Most of the industry has a much greater sensitivity to the need for environmental management and a social licence to operate. The local impacts of mining on the land environment are nearly always major, and conflict with stakeholders is inevitable. The scale of expansion is now a major issue because of emerging regional impacts (e.g. Hunter and La Trobe valleys, northern New South Wales, central Queensland)

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Significant investment in Bioregional Assessments and state and territory work to plan for shale gas

Year(s): 
2016
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Planning: Existing mechanisms are being tested, particularly when mining and agriculture interests are at odds

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Reduced commercial investment in the sector, but increased government inputs to ensure clear understandings of costs and benefits

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Inputs: Insufficient environmental information is hampering decision-making and policy (e.g. mapping of prime agriculture land, assessing groundwater dynamics and contamination risks)

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Statutory requirements for management and monitoring, and for approvals phase. Insufficient emphasis on rehabilitation

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Processes: Management of mine sites has generally improved, as has mine-site rehabilitation. Processes for some types of mines and mining continue to be contested

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Significantly improved, though shortfall in investment for rehabilitation will provide a regrettable legacy

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Significantly improved, but the scale of expansion and related environmental impacts are now the key issues

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: Clear understanding of the impacts of urban development, and growing research into sustainable urban design

Year(s): 
2016
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Understanding: Impacts on the land environment are acknowledged

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Innovative design is not consistently taken up, and short-term perspectives are storing up challenges with modelled sea level rise

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Planning: The incremental nature of expansion rarely translates into an event or conflict that results in major change to planning systems. Strategic planning is only partially successful. The planning profession has lost ground in recent decades, and the need for innovation in planning is now stronger than ever

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Large private sector investment leading to an oversupply

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Inputs: Large private-sector investment, with modest public-sector investment

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Implementation of sensitive planning design not routinely followed

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Processes: Many innovations to improve urban environments are occurring (e.g. through landscape architecture, community initiatives, urban agriculture), and urban development has less of an impact (e.g. erosion and sediment control, water-sensitive design)

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Alienation of agricultural land and native vegetation continues with limited evidence of major change to approaches to development

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Urban sprawl continues. The demand for land on the eastern seaboard will result in the loss of prime agricultural land and continuing environmental impact, unless major changes are made in urban design and planning

Year(s): 
2011
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Understanding: Impacts clearly understood; innovative approaches to use recycled products in train

Year(s): 
2016
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Understanding: Global, national and local imperatives to reduce waste and recycle are now widely supported

Year(s): 
2011
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Planning: Continued improvement needed as landfill sites close. Ongoing investment in preventing rather than disposing of waste required

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Planning: Still evolving, but future constraints are significant and improvements are needed. For example, rehabilitation of existing contaminated sites and shortage of landfill sites are major challenges

Year(s): 
2011
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Inputs: Increasing private investment in waste management and recycling. Significant public engagement

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Inputs: Industries and public agencies have invested in waste disposal and recycling technologies

Year(s): 
2011
4
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Processes: Legislative control in place at all levels. Monitoring not adequate at all landfill sites

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Processes: Surveillance of existing and potentially new contaminated sites is inadequate given the potential economic costs, environmental impacts and consequences for human health

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Outputs and outcomes: Continued improvement

Year(s): 
2016
4
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Outputs and outcomes: Much improved

Year(s): 
2011
3
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed
Metcalfe D, Bui E (2016). Land: Effectiveness of land management. In: Australia state of the environment 2016, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra, https://soe.environment.gov.au/assessment-summary-58-effectiveness-land-management, DOI 10.4226/94/58b6585f94911