State and trends of listed or specially protected sites in Antarctica and the subantarctic that are managed by Australia

The title of this assessment summary has been expanded to better represent the components being assessed. The previous title was 'State and trends of listed or specially protected sites in Antarctica'.

The original 2011 summary, grade, trend and confidence levels have been replicated here to assist comparison of changes between reporting cycles.

Component
Summary
Grade
Very poor Poor Good Very good
Confidence
In Grade In Trend
Comparability
To previous years

Retreating glaciers open potentially new habitat for flora and fauna; visits to the island are infrequent, which makes monitoring difficult

Year(s): 
2016
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Retreating glaciers open potentially new habitat for flora and fauna; visits to the island are infrequent, making monitoring difficult

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Rodent and rabbit eradication program has been completed, and the island's vegetation that had suffered from overgrazing is improving rapidly. However, some plant species, such as the Macquarie Island cushion plant (Azorella macquariensis), continue to show signs of significant stress due to drier conditions

Year(s): 
2016
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Rodent and rabbit eradication program began in 2010 is ongoing; if successful, the island is largely expected to be able to restore itself

Year(s): 
2011
2
Improving
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

This penguin colony is currently the only emperor penguin colony that is known to be situated entirely on land. The population of penguins has been monitored annually since 1988, and some historical information is also available. The number of breeding pairs continues to decrease

Year(s): 
2016
2
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Contains one of only three known emperor penguin colonies located on land. The population of penguins has been monitored annually since 1988 and some historical information is also available

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Six different seabird species are breeding on the islands

A very small colony of southern giant petrels is 1 of only 4 known colonies in East Antarctica

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Six different seabird species are breeding on the islands A very small colony of southern giant petrels is one of only four known colonies in East Antarctica

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

These islands provide breeding habitat for several species of petrels and are examples of their habitat. Visits to the islands are infrequent, and no regular census work is done

Year(s): 
2016
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

These islands provide breeding habitat for several species of petrel and are examples of their habitat. Visits to the islands are infrequent and no regular census work is done

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Scientific reference site for vegetation typical of the area. A number of flora studies were conducted in the 1980s. Changes in snow availability appear to put local vegetation under water stress

Year(s): 
2016
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Scientific reference site for vegetation typical of the area. A number of flora studies were conducted in the 1980s. Changes to snow availability appear to put local vegetation under water stress

Year(s): 
2011
3
Deteriorating
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Designated to protect the largely undisturbed terrestrial ecosystem that includes associations of macrolichens and bryophytes. There is also a colony of Adélie penguins. Possibly similar issues with regard to water resources as ASPA 135, but so far there is insufficient evidence

Year(s): 
2016
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Designated to protect the largely undisturbed terrestrial ecosystem that includes associations of macrolichens and bryophytes. There is also a colony of Adélie penguins. Possibly similar issues with regard to water resources as ASPA 135, but so far there is insufficient evidence

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

The area is representative of an important ice-free terrestrial ecosystem

The area contains important sites for studying the palaeoecology and palaeoclimate

Year(s): 
2016
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

The area is representative of an important ice-free terrestrial ecosystem The area contains important sites for studying the palaeoecology and palaeoclimate

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

A group of 3 small islands, all of which are occupied by a variety of seabirds, including small colonies of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus)

Trends are difficult to estimate because of a lack of data; a significant change in the population size cannot be demonstrated

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

A group of three small islands, all of which are occupied by a variety of seabirds, including small colonies of southern giant petrels Trends are difficult to estimate because of a lack of data; a significant change in the population size cannot be demonstrated

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

The greatest concentrations of breeding seabirds in East Antarctica are found here; bird numbers range from tens to hundreds of thousands.

Remote location makes regular visits impossible.

Year(s): 
2016
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

The greatest concentrations of breeding seabirds in East Antarctica are found here; bird numbers range from tens to hundreds of thousands Their remote location makes regular visits impossible

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

The declaration of this area as an ASPA means that all colonies of southern giant petrels in the AAT are now protected

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

The declaration of this area as an ASPA meant that all colonies of southern giant petrels in the Australian Antarctic Territory are now protected

Year(s): 
2011
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

The only large emperor penguin colony in Prydz Bay is located here.

In the past, few visits were made to this area. Automated cameras installed in 2011 will enable better monitoring of this colony.

Year(s): 
2016
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

The only large emperor penguin colony in Prydz Bay is located here In the past, few visits were made to this area and insufficient information is available to predict a trend

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Two major peninsulas represent a significant part of the ice-free fraction of East Antarctica. Three permanently occupied non-Australian stations exist here.

Year(s): 
2016
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Comparable

Two major peninsulas represent a significant part of the ice-free fraction of East Antarctica. Three permanently occupied non-Australian stations exist here.

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed

Stornes (ASPA 174)

In 2011, Stornes was assessed as part of the Larsemann Hills ASMA; since 2014, it has been an ASPA in its own right

Located within the Larsemann Hills, Stornes is the first ASPA that has been designated primarily for its outstanding geological features, which are collectively known as hard rock occurrences

Year(s): 
2016
3
Stable
Confidence (in grade): 
Adequate
Confidence (in trend): 
Adequate
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Somewhat comparable

Two major peninsulas represent a significant part of the ice-free fraction of East Antarctica. Three permanently occupied non-Australian stations exist here.

Year(s): 
2011
3
Unclear
Confidence (in grade): 
Limited
Confidence (in trend): 
Limited
Comparability (to previous reports): 
Not assessed
Klekociuk A, Wienecke B (2016). Antarctic environment: State and trends of listed or specially protected sites in Antarctica and the subantarctic that are managed by Australia . In: Australia state of the environment 2016, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra, https://soe.environment.gov.au/assessment-summary/antarctic-environment/state-and-trends-listed-or-specially-protected-sites, DOI 10.4226/94/58b65b2b307c0