The , supported by the Australian Government’s National Environmental Science Programme, is using standardised monitoring methodology to provide a national assessment of shallow rocky and coral reef biodiversity (in waters less than 25 metres deep) around Australia’s coasts, and at offshore islands and reef systems (Figure MAR23). The survey gathers information on reef fishes; large mobile invertebrates such as sea urchins, crown-of-thorns starfish, lobsters and abalone; and habitat-forming seaweeds and corals. Results from the Australian surveys are directly comparable with global reef surveys conducted by the same organisation.
State and trends of the marine environment 2016
At a glance
Reporting on the current state and recent trends of the biological and ecological components of Australia’s marine environment is highly variable across Australia’s marine estate, and is often inadequate for robust assessment. There are few coordinated, sustained monitoring programs at the national level for the marine environment, and most monitoring is restricted to fisheries assessments and short-term programs in localised regions. Reporting also varies in terms of spatial and temporal coverage, parameters measured, methods used and key indicators. This results in varying certainty in the state and trends reported for the state of the environment (SoE) assessment.
Generally, habitats and communities in the Temperate East and the South-east marine regions have been subject to higher historical impacts, such as bottom-trawling impacts on shelf and slope communities, than those in other regions. The condition of habitats and communities in the Great Barrier Reef to the end of 2015 is considered to range from poor and deteriorating (corals) to good and stable (macroalgae, offshore banks and shoals). Large canopy-forming seaweeds are still prevalent in many locations around Australia, but increased water temperatures and range extension by the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii in south-eastern Australia have led to the loss and overgrazing of kelp beds in temperate rocky reefs, resulting in a poor and deteriorating state and trend for this habitat. Giant kelp forests of south-eastern Australia were the first marine community to be listed as a threatened ecological community under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 in 2012.
Most species groups assessed are regarded to be in good condition overall, although information is lacking to assess the condition or trend of many species and species groups because they are not regularly monitored, if at all. Trends are stable or improving for most fish species, except inner shelf reef species, which are highly spatially variable—some are in good condition and stable, whereas others are in poor condition and deteriorating. Shelf demersal and benthopelagic fish species, while in poor condition, are considered as generally improving, with a few exceptions. Some species have improved from past declines (e.g. long-nosed fur seals, southern Great Barrier Reef green turtles, humpback whales, the eastern stock of orange roughy), and others are currently stable (e.g. mesopelagic and epipelagic fish species, shy albatross). Some species have declined because of cumulative impacts associated with high mortality from bycatch within fisheries, impacts associated with coastal nesting/breeding sites and climate change (e.g. flesh-footed shearwater, Australian sea lion, north Queensland hawksbill turtle, some demersal shark species).
Overall, the state of components of the marine environment identified in SoE 2011 as providing biophysical and ecological indicators of marine health shows the marine environment to be in good condition in 2016, although several indicators are highly spatially and temporally variable, and determining trends is difficult. Overall, on a national scale, water column turbidity in open-water environments has decreased; this is largely the result of improved wastewater treatment, reduced nutrient inputs, and improved management of agricultural practices and associated run-off. Observed reductions in primary and secondary productivity are considered to be associated with reduced nutrient supply because of ocean warming. Changes to ocean currents have affected connectivity within marine ecosystems, as observed through shifts in species distributions, especially in south-eastern Australia. There has been trophic (food chain) restructuring of some ecosystems as a result of commercial and recreational fishing, pollution, introduction of foreign species, and habitat modification. Some of these impacts are irreversible, but the effects are generally unknown. Introduced species, blooms and infestations of jellyfish and algae, diseases, and animal kills appear to be stable, whereas trends in crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks are unclear.
Australia’s marine environment encompasses the seabed; the water column; physical, biogeochemical and ecological processes that play an important role in shaping the marine environment; and habitats, communities and species groups, which all interact in highly complex ways.
The current state and trends of these components result from past and present pressures placed on them, their resilience (see Resilience for the definition of resilience used in this report), adaptation to the pressures, and any mitigating management frameworks.
Reporting on the current state and recent trends of Australia’s marine environment is highly variable, because the extent of available information differs across Australia’s marine estate. There are few coordinated, sustained biological monitoring programs at the national level for the marine environment, and most monitoring is restricted to fisheries assessments and short-term programs in localised regions. Information from such monitoring programs will therefore only reflect the state and trends of the marine environment at that site, and is unlikely to be indicative of larger regions. Reporting varies in terms of spatial and temporal coverage, parameters measured, methods used and key indicators. This results in varying certainty in the state and trends reported for the SoE assessment.
Several important exceptions to overall monitoring of the marine environment are highlighted here and detailed further in Sustained ocean monitoring. The National Reference Stations build on historical sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, and also provide observations of dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton and zooplankton at 7 key locations (originally 9) around the nation’s shelves (see Lynch et al. 2014). The IMOS national facilities provide sustained coverage of benthic communities, zooplankton and midwater pelagic fish. The brings together scientists, managers and citizen scientists across Australia to monitor shallow reef biodiversity (see Box MAR5). The Long-term Temperate Marine Protected Areas Monitoring Program and the Australian Institute of Marine Science have also been monitoring shallow reef locations across southern Australia and along the Great Barrier Reef, respectively, for more than 20 years. Some outputs from these programs are now integrated, encompassing 15 regions Australia-wide.The following section summarises expert-led assessments of marine habitats, communities and species groups; and physical, biogeochemical, biological and ecological processes in the marine environment for each marine region, using the format established in SoE 2011 (see also Approach). Many of the assessments draw on information from monitoring programs across jurisdictions, but also highlight the knowledge gaps for many components of the marine environment and the uncertainties associated with the information collected to date. For most components (habitats, communities and species groups), current state and recent trends have been summarised at the marine region level. However, direct comparisons between marine regions at the summary level are not made because of the varying spatial and temporal coverage of datasets between regions; the varying certainty for assessments undertaken; and inconsistencies in the variables measured, methods used and analyses undertaken in the monitoring of many habitats, communities, species groups, and physical, chemical, biological and ecological processes. For example, although 713 canyons have been mapped across Australia’s continental margin, information on the state of benthic communities that occupy these features has only been collected for a select few (see Kloser et al. 2014). Direct comparisons of the state of canyons across marine regions is not possible without making large assumptions about the state of canyons that have no information available. Detailed information on the state and trends of habitats, communities and species groups within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is in GBRMPA (2014a). Available regional updates are provided in the introductory text for each of the subsections in this part of the report, or in the case studies.