Additional pressures



A large range of additional pressures not discussed here also operate across the regions. These include other pollutants, such as marine debris; and the activities of a range of industries and groups, such as tourism, mining, energy generation, desalination, defence, recreational boating and the traditional use of marine resources.

Generally, these apply less acute pressure, or data on their impacts are more difficult to acquire. For example, marine debris (particularly derelict fishing nets) is a well-known issue in Australian and global tropical waters. Available information indicates that at least 77 species of marine wildlife found in Australian waters, including turtles, cetaceans and seabirds, have been affected by entanglement in, or ingestion of, plastic debris during the past three and a half decades (1974–2008). Most records of impacts of plastic debris on wildlife relate to entanglement, rather than ingestion.80 The extent of impact from marine debris on marine populations overall is unclear.

Ward T (2011). Marine environment: Additional pressures. In: Australia state of the environment 2011, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra,, DOI 10.4226/94/58b657ea7c296