... 20th and 21st centuries (1.7 ± 0.2 millimetres per year; mm/y) ( Church et al. 2013a ) than in pre-industrial times, and at an ... rise since the start of the record in 1993 is 3.2 ± 0.4 mm/y ( Church et al. 2013a ). Rising sea level is a result of the expansion ...
Gt = gigatonne; mm = millimetreSource: Adapted from Figure 4.16 of Vaughan et al. (2013)
Figure ANT8 Annual average estimated cumulative ice mass loss and sea level equivalent, 1992–2012
The physical environment: The cryosphere
At a glanceOnline availability of flow data and water resources information has increased substantially since 2011, including:
various state-based data portals
a national repository with flow and other data for more than 3400 sites
a national set of 222 long-term, high-quality reference...
Three factors contribute to the risk posed by increasing water abstraction and interception:
the demands of a growing population
increases in per-person water consumption for this population...
The ability of ecosystems to tolerate and recover from disturbance is a phenomenon that is vitally important to understand. Resilience has stimulated much valuable research that has...
At a glanceA challenge in assessing resilience of inland water environments is recognising resilience when it occurs, especially because Australian ecosystems have developed to be both resistant and resilient.
We can contribute to resilience by reducing extreme and detrimental ecosystem...
At a glanceThe outlook for Australia’s land environment is shaped by the legacy of our former activities, the current and future pressures on the land environment, and how we respond to these pressures.
The many consequences of climate change provide the greatest challenges. The challenges...
This assessment summary has changed it's name since 2011
State and trends of species populations and groups
State and trends
State and trends of marine biodiversity: Species Groups...
4 Inland water
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Environment Directorate. OECD key environmental indicators. Paris: OECD, 2008, viewed 28 July 2011, www.oecd.org/dataoecd/20/40/37551205.pdf.
Steffen W, Burbidge A, Hughes L, Kitching R, Lindenmayer D, Musgrave W, Stafford Smith M, Werner P. Australia’s biodiversity and climate change. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Climate...
Montreal Process Implementation Group. Australia’s state of the forests: five yearly report 2008. Prepared by the Montreal Process Implementation Group for Australia on behalf of the Australian, state and territory...
Australia State of the Environment 2016 has been prepared by independent experts using the best available information to support assessments of environmental condition, pressures, management effectiveness, resilience, risks and outlook.
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We, the authors, acknowledge the traditional owners of Country throughout Australia and their continuing connection to land, sea and community; we pay respect to them and their cultures and to their elders both past and present.