Commercial and other domestic sources


Commercial premises can pose a threat to health and amenity at the local level, mainly through emissions of particles and VOCs. VOC sources include aerosols, surface-coating operations and solvents (the latter being a particular cause of odour complaints). Commercial food-processing operations can also place local amenity at risk because of odour emissions. As previously discussed, smoke from poorly designed and operated domestic wood heaters can pose a significant seasonal risk to amenity and health at both neighbourhood and airshed scales. Collectively, domestic and commercial sources annually contribute around one-third of VOCs to the Sydney and Melbourne airsheds, approximately one-quarter to one-third to particulate pollution in Sydney, and one-half to particulate pollution in Melbourne. In the case of Melbourne, the contribution of both VOCs and particles is concentrated in winter, because they are strongly associated with domestic heating.

Keywood MD, Emmerson KM, Hibberd MF (2016). Ambient air quality: Commercial and other domestic sources. In: Australia state of the environment 2016, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra,, DOI 10.4226/94/58b65c70bc372