The concept of resilience has not been widely applied in Australian heritage management (see ‘Resilience’ in the SoE 2011 'Heritage' chapter; SoE Committee 2011). However, a range of approaches to both natural and cultural heritage do consider the notion of managing change. In national parks and reserved lands, adaptive management recognises that places are altered by both natural and human pressures, and seeks to respond in a manner that recognises changes, but does not alter the fundamental integrity of the place. Environmental impact assessments and heritage impact assessments also try to evaluate the impact of specific development proposals, and often conclude that there is an acceptable level of impact. In the cultural environment, assessing impacts on heritage has become a common technique for evaluating and managing change, the test usually being whether a proposal unacceptably affects heritage values.