The resilience of heritage places depends on the nature of their values and the extent of the total resource. Australian bioregions that are well represented in the reserved lands system are much more resilient as a whole than under-represented bioregions. Ecosystems and species that are fire dependent will be more resilient to an increase in fire frequency brought about by climate change; conversely, species that are highly dependent on ecological niches may be at risk and susceptible.
Indigenous places may be both fragile and resilient, depending on the circumstance. Indigenous heritage places have been progressively damaged and destroyed through a repetitive process of one-off decisions. Indigenous places whose value is in physical form are not resilient to damage or destruction. However, some Indigenous places with intangible value have demonstrated an ability to recover through re-engagement of traditional owners, transmission of stories and re-establishment of traditions (Box HER43).