The main pressures affecting the Australian environment today are the same as in 2011: climate change, land-use change, habitat fragmentation and degradation, and invasive species. There is no indication that these have decreased overall since 2011. Some individual pressures on components of the Australian environment have decreased (e.g. commercial fisheries), and there is evidence that some pressures have increased (e.g. dumped wastes in the marine environment and invasive species generally). The impacts associated with many, however, remain unclear. In addition, the interactions between pressures can result in cumulative impacts, amplifying the threat faced by the Australian environment.