Six discrete marine regions have been identified under marine bioregional planning conducted in support of the EPBC Act: North, Coral Sea, Temperate East, South-east, South-west and North-west (Figure MAR2).
Since the first SoE report in 1996, a great deal of effort has been focused on improving environment-related policies and associated management actions. However, these are often focused on reducing pressures on the environment.
Motor vehicles are a significant source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Australia, comprising some 90 per cent of transport CO2 emissions, which made up 17 per cent of Australia’s net CO2-equivalent emissions in 2015 (see ‘Sectora
Improved tools and technical advances are becoming more available, sophisticated and cost-effective for biodiversity assessment, monitoring and management. The following are increasingly being taken up for a multitude of biodiversity monitoring requirements:
The major source of nitrogen dioxide in Australia is burning of the fossil fuels coal, oil and gas. In cities, the predominant source is on-road vehicle emissions. The standards were met at all compliance sites in 2010–14, and have not been exceeded since the early 1990s.
Nonroad diesel engines and equipment are used in a wide variety of applications, including rail transport, mining, construction, industrial, shipping and airport services, and can be high pollution emitters.
The most significant national heritage management initiative since 2011 has been the preparation and launch of the Australian Heritage Strategy (DoE 2015a), which, for the first time, provides a nationally driven strategic direction for heritage management across
The Murray–Darling Basin Plan, which came into effect in late 2012, guides governments, regional authorities and communities about how to sustainably manage and use the surface waters and groundwaters of the Basin.
In 2014, the creation of the National Landcare Programme merged the Caring for our Country and Landcare programs. This aims to streamline governance processes and coordinate investments from national to local scale.
Australia has improved various aspects of its human presence in Antarctica through improved waste treatment and repatriation, greater biosecurity screening of material transported to and from Antarctica, and successful eradication of cats, rabbits and rodents on Macquarie Island.
In April 2016, the Australian Government released the Smart Cities Plan. The plan outlines the Australian Government’s vision for cities—metropolitan and regional—and how policy, investment and technology can deliver integrated long-term planning, targeted investment and urban policy reform.
Many improvements to management frameworks across Australian Government, state and territory jurisdictions introduced since 2011, including the implementation of new national regulators, have had beneficial outcomes for the marine environment.
Given that values are what distinguish heritage places from other places, the resilience of heritage places may be understood as their ability to experience shocks while retaining their heritage values.
Australia State of the Environment 2016 has been prepared by independent experts using the best available information to support assessments of environmental condition, pressures, management effectiveness, resilience, risks and outlook.
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We, the authors, acknowledge the traditional owners of Country throughout Australia and their continuing connection to land, sea and community; we pay respect to them and their cultures and to their elders both past and present.