Both prescribed burns and bushfires emit smoke plumes, which are visible because of the PM they contain. The smoke is the product of incomplete combustion. Fire emissions rates are affected by fire behaviour and the amount of fuel being burned.
The Mawson’s Huts Historic Site is Australia’s oldest and arguably most significant historic heritage site in Antarctica. At the time of their construction, more than 100 years ago, the huts were built to last only a few years.
Our terrestrial and marine natural heritage is susceptible to the general pressures arising from climate change outlined above, as well as some of the pressures that flow from population and economic growth. However, other pressures apply particularly to natural heritage.
Heritage management processes are assessed by considering the governance systems in place that provide appropriate statutory responses, adaptive management practices based on effective monitoring systems, and adequate resources.
Broadly, Australia can be divided into 2 seasonal rainfall regimes: the north and the south. The northern half of the continent typically experiences a monsoonal, summer wet season, with rainfall falling from October through April, and the rest of the year being dry.
The period since 2010–11 provided the first cooler than average year since 2001 (i.e. 2011), along with the warmest (2013), third-warmest (2014) and fifth-warmest (2015) years on record for Australia (BoM 2012,
There have been some recent developments in the approach and tools for coastal management, including emerging analytical methods for decision-making, and conservation at multiple levels of biodiversity.
Recovery from change can be observed in systems that have been heavily degraded, and then either actively restored or allowed to recover by natural processes. Challenges in restoration ecology are the setting of appropriate goals, and the ability to detect when goals are reached.
Bushfires (wildfires) are uncontrolled fire in the landscape. These particularly affect natural or seminatural vegetation, and have significant positive and negative effects on landscape and ecosystem processes.
Land clearing represents a fundamental pressure on the land environment, causing the loss and fragmentation of native vegetation. Depending on subsequent management, land clearing can also lead to a variety of impacts on soils, including erosion and loss of nutrients.
The ability of the climate system to recover from changes to the composition of the atmosphere (particularly increasing CO2 concentrations) is complicated by the fact that the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere involves several processes that occur across diff
Investment in management of the land environment includes financial and in-kind commitments by all levels of government, private landowners and businesses, philanthropic and other nongovernment organisations, Indigenous Australians and communities.
In light of international agreements such as the Paris Agreement—which emerged from the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) in 2015, and governs greenhouse gas
Australia State of the Environment 2016 has been prepared by independent experts using the best available information to support assessments of environmental condition, pressures, management effectiveness, resilience, risks and outlook.
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We, the authors, acknowledge the traditional owners of Country throughout Australia and their continuing connection to land, sea and community; we pay respect to them and their cultures and to their elders both past and present.