The energy sector (comprising stationary energy, transport and fugitive emissions from fuels) continues to be the dominant source of Australia’s GHG emissions, accounting for 74% of net emissions, including those associated with land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) (
There is very little published analysis on which to base an assessment of the relative impacts of different pressures, or the ways in which their absolute or relative impacts might change in the future.
Evaluation of management effectiveness involves assessing each of the core elements of an effective and efficient management framework (understanding, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes.
Effective management of biodiversity requires not only effective management of individual pressures but also effective integration across those pressures, including management of their interactions with one another.
Although isolated from other continents, Antarctica is connected to the rest of world through oceanic and atmospheric circulations. Antarctica and the surrounding Southern Ocean are key drivers of Earth's oceanic and atmospheric systems.
Although the above assessments are somewhat critical of current arrangements with regard to resilience, some very hopeful trends are emerging that will potentially build greater resilience of coastal social–ecological systems.
This chapter provides an account of the most significant and recent human impacts on our land. It highlights improvements in land management over some parts of Australia, as well as several adverse trends.
Australia State of the Environment 2016 has been prepared by independent experts using the best available information to support assessments of environmental condition, pressures, management effectiveness, resilience, risks and outlook.
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We, the authors, acknowledge the traditional owners of Country throughout Australia and their continuing connection to land, sea and community; we pay respect to them and their cultures and to their elders both past and present.